Canadian Freight Claim Filing Deadlines

No matter how knowledgeable you might be about freight claims, if you don’t file on time, the carrier will likely decline your claim. Therefore, it’s essential that you keep track of time limits for filing claims or lawsuits.

Deadlines differ depending on the shipping modality, region, and even the type of product being shipped. Here is a brief summary of Canadian filing deadlines by shipping modality.

Ground Shipments:

Claims against ground carriers (truck or rail) need to be filed within 9 months of the shipment date. The exception is for livestock; in this case, the approximate amount must be given within 90 days of delivery, or within 90 days of expected delivery if no delivery was made. (Highway Traffic Act).

According to Freight Claims in Plain English, there is some room for interpretation when it comes to the time limits to file suit. To be safe, shippers should file suit within the 9 month claim period. The alternative interpretation would give the shipper 2 or 6 years to file suit, depending on which province suit is filed in.

Air Cargo:

For freight shipped on an international flight, a claim must be filed within 14 days for damage claims, or within 21 days for delay claims. (Schedule III, Article XV of the Carriage by Air Act, R.S.C. 1985, c C 26).

Actions against the carrier must be initiated within 2 years of the delivery date or expected delivery date, or the date when carriage ceased. (Schedule I, Article 29 of the Carriage by Air Act, R.S.C. 1985, c C 26).

For domestic flights, time limits for claims are left up to the individual carriers’ tariffs.

Marine Cargo:

Documentation of the claim must be made when the cargo is received, or within 3 days if the damage is not immediately apparent.

The time limit to take action against the carrier is 1 year from the date of delivery, or 1 year from the expected date of delivery in the case of lost goods. (Article III(6), Schedule 3 of the marine Liability Act, S.C. 2001, c. 6).

Note that this article provides a summary for each modality, and special circumstances may result in different time limitations. And remember, the time limits illustrated above only apply to Canadian shipments.

For time limitations for filing claims or lawsuits against American carriers, download our whitepaper: USA Claim and Lawsuit Filing Deadlines.

Disclaimer: The information on this blog is for personal reference only. This is not official legal advice. We accept no responsibility for consequences resulting from the use of this information. For official legal advice, talk to a certified professional.

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Factors to Consider When Choosing a Forklift

When it comes to forklifts, there is a wide variety of types to choose from. Here is an overview of a few factors to consider when looking for a forklift.

Indoor vs Outdoor Forklifts

The first question to consider is where you will be operating the forklift – indoors or outdoors? If you are operating outdoors, you may need to move over uneven surfaces. For this reason, you will want a forklift that features pneumatic tires. If the ground where you will be operating on is especially rough, you may even want to opt for rough-terrain tires.

If you are operating indoors, cushion tires are generally preferred. If you are operating in a showroom or other client-facing environment, it is important that your floors are kept clean and scuff-free. In this case, you may want to consider non-marking tires.

Power type is another factor to consider if operating indoors. Forklifts running on gasoline or diesel fuel will compromise the indoor air quality of a confined indoor space. They are also noisier than battery powered forklifts. Battery powered units are ideal for indoor use for these reasons.

Load Types & Requirements

The type of materials and products you are moving is another important consideration. Are you just moving small, compact loads? A manual pallet jack or pallet truck may be sufficient. A pallet jack is similar to a dolly, but it includes a pneumatic or manual lift to raise the load off of the ground. Are you carrying long loads such as pipes or beams? In this case, a sideloader will provide better load stability and ease of movement, compared to a traditional forklift.

Also consider the information you need to collect about the load. Is it important that you know the weight of each load prior to loading it onto a trailer? It is possible to add a weigh scale directly onto the forklift for this purpose.

Forklift Movement and Maneuverability

The third factor to consider is the movement required. If you need to maneuver around tight spaces, a 3 wheel counterbalance forklift is a good option. This forklift includes a single rear wheel which gives it a tight turn radius for navigating small spaces.

If you need to stack warehouse shelves, reach trucks are an attractive choice. This type of forklift features stabilizing legs which enable it to reach out into stacks of product and lift over 10 meters high, all in a compact design.

For lifting to even greater heights, a telescopic handler may be used. This piece of equipment functions similar to a crane, and enables such tasks as lifting pallets from trucks directly onto rooftops.

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The New Pirate Headquarters – It’s Not Somalia

While Somalia is well known for its piracy activity, piracy in the region has been on the decline. Over the course of the past three years, Somali pirate attacks have dropped by 95%.

However, in Southeastern Asia, piracy is on the rise. In fact, piracy in the region has increased by an alarming 700% in the last 5 years. Specifically, it appears there is a new pirate haven in the Strait of Malacca, the waterway between Malaysia and Indonesia.

So why is this region and surrounding area drawing so much pirate activity?


The geography of the Malacca Strait makes for the perfect pirate hideaway. The coastal regions are marshy or forested with a multitude of coves, islands, and shallows for pirates to steal away to. In contrast, Somalia has a well-defined coastline which allows pirates to be more easily spotted.

While pirates have the advantage of cover, the strait puts cargo ships at an additional disadvantage. The narrow, shallow nature of the strait makes it difficult for large cargo ships to travel at high speeds, a key defense against pirates. The awkward, slow-moving ships become easy targets for the pirates’ agile speedboats.

Marine Traffic

Despite being a narrow waterway, the strait is a route used by one third of global shipping. It’s only natural that such a high traffic route would be popular among pirates.

Despite the high volume of goods and commodities passing through the strait – including half the world’s oil supply – pirates in this region prefer to rob the ship and crew for cash before making a quick retreat. This is in contrast to the grand hijackings and kidnappings popular among Somali pirates. However, piracy experts warn that piracy in the region needs to be controlled quickly before it becomes more organized.

Political & Cultural

As in Somalia, the coasts of the Strait of Malacca suffer from poverty, which is the real root of the problem. However, unlike the lawless coastlines of Somalia, the Malacca Strait is surrounded by countries with governments working together to eliminate piracy. With all the advantages the strait offers to pirates, stable, committed governments may be the best tool available in fighting piracy.

Protect Yourself from Piracy

If you’re shipping anything through the Strait of Malacca or near the Somali coastline, piracy is a real risk you take. Learn what insurance coverage will best protect your ship, cargo, and crew in the event of a pirate attack. Download our free ebook Insurance in the New Age of Piracy.

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Upgrade Your Warehouse Receiving Process

When mistakes happen in receiving, they only create more problems down the line. Eliminate mistakes and inefficiencies in your receiving department by upgrading your warehouse receiving process:

Warehouse Receiving Process #1: Advanced Shipping Notification (ASN)

Advanced Shipping Notification means that shippers let consignees know ahead of time what they are shipping and when it will arrive. ASN is usually linked with a warehouse management system, although it isn’t necessary. This warehouse receiving process enables receiving personnel to prepare and plan for incoming shipments. Your carriers will thank you – ASN enables you to schedule receipts so that you don’t have multiple carriers waiting to use the same handful of dock doors. It also enables cross-docking and more efficient outbound shipping.

Warehouse Receiving Process #2: Vendor Compliance Program

A vendor compliance program ensures that shipments arrive in a way that can be easily processed in your warehouse, and by your customers. For example, consistent labeling allows you to streamline scanning and picking. Or you might require that a product is shipped in packs of 6 within the case, so you don’t need to send a full case to a smaller customer. In order to develop and implement this warehouse receiving procedure, your warehouse manager and your procurement team will need to collaborate.

Warehouse Receiving Process #3: Automatic Data Collection

Whether you use bar codes or RFI, some form of automatic data collection is essential. Automatic data collection has been shown to dramatically reduce errors and increase efficiency. Since each error in receiving leads to several more errors later on, your receiving department should be high on your priority list of departments to automate.

Warehouse Receiving Process #4: Suit Up

While it might not seem like a major security upgrade, providing your warehouse team with uniforms enables you to quickly identify who belongs in the warehouse, and who doesn’t. Construction Equipment Distribution even suggests printing the shirts to read “Vault Security Team”. This will remind your staff of the importance of their work, and the value of the shipments that they work with.

Want more information on warehouse receiving? Download our warehouse receiving process checklist here.

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Compare: Blown Stretch Wrap vs Cast Stretch Wrap

After you have chosen your pallet type, you will also need to choose the type of stretch wrap to wrap your load.

While there are endless types of stretch wrap with different gauges, colours, and strengths, the first thing to decide on is whether to use blown stretch wrap, or cast stretch wrap. These two types of stretch wrap are made using different processes, which gives them different qualities. Each type of wrap has its advantages and disadvantages – consider what your shipping and warehousing priorities are when choosing your wrap.

Best Stretch Wrap for RFID

If you’re using RFID, cast stretch wrap is a better option. Cast wrap comes out looking very clear and glossy, making scanning easy. In comparison, blown stretch wrap is not as clear, making scanning more difficult.

Stretch Wrap for Loads with Sharp Edges

For loads with sharp edges, it’s important to choose a stretch wrap with high tear resistance. In this case, blown stretch wrap offers greater resistance to tears and punctures.

Choosing Stretch Wrap for Load Stability

For the most stability, you need to choose a stretch wrap that will keep its hold and not stretch further after it is wound around the load. In this case, blown stretch wrap is the better choice; cast wrap is more likely to continue to stretch after it is applied.

Quietest Stretch Wrap

This might be an important consideration for small businesses whose packaging operation shares space with other business activities. Blown stretch wrap will make a lot of noise when it’s being unwound, whereas cast stretch wrap is very quiet.

Low Cost Stretch Wrap

When looking at the price of the stretch wrap itself, cast stretch wrap offers a lower cost. However, keep in mind that cost of the stretch wrap itself is only one aspect of your overall shipping cost – it’s important to evaluate your overall needs as well.

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Choose the Best Pallet Type For Your Freight

In our previous article, we mentioned the importance of choosing the right type of pallet. In this post, we’ll get into greater detail on the pros and cons of different types of pallets.

Wooden Pallets

This was traditionally the only material option for pallets, and wood is still the most popular type of pallet today.

Pros of Wooden Pallets

Wooden pallets are strong and relatively durable. They can also be reused multiple times, either by the initial shipper or sold to other shippers after their first use. Even if they are damaged, they are easily repaired. Wooden pallets are slip resistant, and they are also relatively inexpensive.

Cons of Wooden Pallets

While wooden pallets can be reused, there is a limit to their use as their structural integrity becomes weakened over time. They are also prone to splintering. Loose or rusty nails can cause damage to packaging and pose a risk to warehouse workers.

Wooden pallets are also heavier than other pallet materials. Their heavy cost increases the cost of shipping. This also increases back injury risk among warehouse workers.

The fact that wood is porous also creates several disadvantages. In order to be ISPM 15 compliant for international shipping, wooden pallets must be properly treated. There is a risk that these pallet types will be held up in quarantine by customs officials if there is a suspicion of pest contamination. Wooden pallets may also host pathogens such as E Coli or Listeria, which may present a problem when shipping consumables such as food or pharmaceuticals.

Recommendations for Wood Pallet Use

  • Because of their low cost, wooden pallets are a good pallet type for shippers who ship one way and will not have their pallets returned to them.
  • Consider the initial low cost of purchasing wooden pallets compared with the increased shipping cost due to their heavy weight. This will be an increasingly important consideration as oil prices continue to rise.
  • If shipping internationally, ensure that wood pallets are properly treated, or consider using other types of pallets.

Plastic Pallets

Plastic pallets are a newer type of pallet that come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages compared to the wooden variety.

Pros of Plastic Pallets

Heavy duty plastic pallets can be reused many more times than wooden pallets, and their structural integrity remains strong over their lifetime.

These types of pallets are also lightweight, at about 70% the weight of wooden pallets, allowing shippers to reduce shipping costs.

Their lightweight, nail-free design also poses less risk of injury to the warehouse workers who handle them. Plastic pallets are designed to interlock with each other, enabling easy stacking.

Of course, plastic pallets are ISPM 15 compliant and require no further treatment. Because they are non-porous, they are easily cleaned and will not absorb bacteria.

Cons of Plastic Pallets

The biggest deterrent of this pallet type is the cost, at roughly 3x the cost of wooden pallets. Their high price means that shippers using plastic pallets typically want them to be returned. This means that shippers must use a closed loop distribution system, which can be limiting.

Although plastic pallets are generally more durable than wood, when they are damaged, they are not reparable and must be discarded.

Plastic pallets have a slippery surface, meaning that cartons on top of them are more likely to slide around. They are also more flammable than wood pallets, but they can be treated with fire retardants which makes them safer.

Recommendations for Plastic Pallet Use

  • Plastic pallets are a good pallet type for shippers who need to ship internationally but do not want to worry about ISPM 15 or potential delays due to quarantines.
  • This type of pallet can reduce shipping costs for shippers who participate in closed loop shipping and reuse their pallets.
  • The reduced weight of plastic pallets may make them an economical choice for expensive forms of shipping such as air freight.
  • Because they are easily cleaned and sanitized, they lend themselves well to shipping food and other consumables.
  • If using plastic pallets, ensure that they have been treated with fire retardants.

Corrugate/Cardboard Pallets

Another pallet type that is relatively new is made of corrugate or cardboard. This includes several different types of pallets, such as those with honeycomb or corrugated constructions.

Pros of Corrugate Pallets

A major advantage of corrugate pallets is their lightweight structure. Pallets made of corrugate will weigh only 25% of a pallet made of wood, drastically reducing shipping costs. Depending on the type of corrugate pallet, these pallets are comparable to the cost of wooden pallets.

Corrugate pallets are also easily broken down and recycled after use. They are also compliant with ISPM 15 regulations, making them useful for international shipping.

Cons of Corrugate Pallets

The major disadvantage of this pallet type is their lack of durability. Corrugate pallets quickly lose structural integrity if they become moist, and therefore cannot be exposed to the elements or stored outside. Because of their lack of durability, they can only be used once. They are also porous and cannot be cleaned or sanitized.

Recommendations for Corrugate Pallets

  • Their light weight and ISPM 15 compliance makes corrugate pallets a good choice for international shipping.
  • If using corrugate pallets, shippers must ensure that their logistics personnel are properly trained and prepared to protect corrugate pallets from exposure to moisture.
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Cargo Theft Prevention Bill Passed in Brazil

The assembly of Sao Paulo, Brazil, has recently passed a cargo theft prevention bill.

The bill works by imposing strict penalties on those purchasing stolen goods. Companies caught with stolen goods can face fines up to twice the value of the stolen property, or even have their businesses shut down.

The bill is designed to make it more difficult for cargo thieves to unload their products. The hope is that with a reduction in buyers, cargo theft will become a less attractive venture.

Cargo theft has been a major issue in Brazil for years. According to Freight Watch International’s 2013 Global Cargo Theft Threat Assessment, in 2012, Brazil was among the top 5 countries in the world with the most severe risk of cargo theft. In 2012, there were an estimated 15,000 cargo theft incidents.

The Sao Paulo region of Brazil is a particular problem, with 53% of the country’s cargo thefts occurring in Sao Paulo.

Thieves have been increasingly focused on high value goods such as pharmaceuticals. The incidences of violent hijackings have also increased.

Only time will tell if the bill is successful in its goal of cargo theft prevention.

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The Economics of Piracy

Somali piracy is constantly in the news, and it’s been an even hotter topic with Hollywood’s latest movie, Captain Philips. However, up until recently, very little has been known about the economy of piracy. A recent report by the World Bank, the UN, and Interpol has brought new insight into matter. Here are some insights from the report, as well as some other facts about the economics of piracy.

Economic Roots of Piracy

Piracy originated as the Somalis’ attempts to defend their waters from foreign countries who would fish or dump illegally in their waters. Somali fisherman formed a sort of coast guard, where they would approach trespassing ships and demand payment as a fishing tax. From there, they evolved into the more lucrative practice of piracy.

Pirate Ransoms

Pirates may make their money by looting the ship and passengers, or by taking the ship and crew and holding them for ransom. They might even loot an oil tanker by siphoning off the oil. In most cases though, they will hold a ship and/or the passengers for ransom. They may hold the ship for anywhere from a few months to a couple years. The average random between 2005 and 2012 is estimated at about $2.7 million.

Financial Backing

With the need for motor boats, weapons, GPS and even large pirate “mother ships” for larger scale hijacks, the pirate economy is supported by financiers who provide funding – usually around $80,000. In exchange, the financiers will take anywhere from 30 – 75% of the total ransom. Of the average $2.7 million ransom, that ranges from $810,000 to as much as $2 million. Individual pirates receive between $30,000 to $75,000.


Quat, (also known as Qat or Khat) is a narcotic chewed by most pirates. Pirates will often pay two or three times more than market value for the drug (and other goods) while on the job. This has lead some pirate financiers to invest into the Quat trade. While mostly legal, the multi-million dollar Quat trade is highly unregulated, which makes it prone to crime.

Economy Back Home

There are economic pros and cons for pirate villages. Piracy draws young men away from productive, legal trades. If pirate men are killed or imprisoned as a result of their work, it means that they will no longer be able to support their family, and they will default on any loans they may have taken out. Piracy has also tainted Somalia’s global reputation, and locals complain that pirates often take their wealth elsewhere. Conversely, piracy creates a need for services to support them and their hostages. The potential payout also means that pirates are willing to pay high prices for anything that they need while on the job.

Hostage Services

Many services have developed to serve the hostages themselves. There are restaurants specifically designed to feed hostages. Others specialize in consulting and negotiating on victims’ behalves. These services are sometimes run by former pirates.

Piracy and the Global Economy

The recent report by the World Bank, the UN, and Interpol estimates that between $339 million and $413 million has been paid in ransom to Somali pirates between 2005 and 2012. However, those aren’t the only costs involved. Not surprisingly, the danger has driven up insurance premiums for ships travelling around the horn of Africa, and sailors working these ships might be paid as much as twice their usual wages to work these routes. Some cargo ships have opted to hire expensive escort ships, which can cost $20,000/day. Alternatively, ships may take long detours to avoid the risks of sailing through these waters, which also drives up costs.

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The Humanitarian Supply Chain Challenges in the Typhoon Haiyan Recovery

For many people, logistics is their livelihood, but when it comes to a disaster like Typhoon Haiyan, logistics is a matter of life and death. Here are some of the humanitarian supply chain challenges and solutions that disaster relief organizations have been working with in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan.

Lack of Supply Chain Infrastructure

When it comes to the humanitarian supply chain, speed is essential. Food, water, medical supplies and personnel must be transported to the hardest hit areas as fast as possible. However, Typhoon Haiyan has made this incredibly difficult, as the storm has destroyed the roads, bridges, and airports that lead into the cities and villages where help is needed. Furthermore, the hardest hit locations are remote villages that had little infrastructure even before the storm.

Lack of Information

After a disaster, lack of communications limit information. This means that it takes longer for humanitarian supply chain professionals to receive information on the status of roads and infrastructure. Drivers in the region will not be able to use cell phones, so they need to be given as much information as possible beforehand.

Ann Campbell, a professor at the University of Iowa’s Tippie College of Business, has a research focus in the humanitarian supply chain. She looks for more efficient ways for relief organizations to deliver supplies to disaster sites. Campbell uses mathematical modeling to determine the most efficient routes for drivers to take, helping to minimize loss of life after a disaster. The idea is to give drivers a main route as well as some alternative routes in case the main route is not useable.

Supply Chain Challenges Created by ‘Misspent Altruism’

While there has been a global outpouring of support, not all donations are helpful. Cash is versatile and always helpful, while donations of food or other goods may create more trouble than they’re worth.

While food is urgently needed, donations of food from abroad may sit in warehouses for weeks before it can be exported. Not to mention the additional cost to ship goods overseas rather than buying locally. Conversely, aid organizations can use cash to buy food and supplies locally, in bulk. This ensures that supplies can be accessed quickly, and also allows them to attain bulk discounts. Buying locally also helps the local economy to recover.

Another problem with donated goods is the culture and language barrier. If foreign medical supplies are shipped to the Philippines, the labels might not be understood by the local people. While some organizations accept goods of all kinds, the most helpful donation is cash.

To help survivors of Typhoon Haiyan, you can make a donation to the Red Cross here:

humanitarian supply chain challenges

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How To Defend Against Somali Pirates

Between the Tom Hanks movie “Captain Phillips” and recent events, Somali pirates have been getting some attention lately. While the occurrence of attacks has decreased recently, piracy is still a major economic and safety issue.

So what can be done? Carrying weapons and people trained to use them seems like an obvious method of defense, but the situation is not that simple. Many non-military ports will not allow ships carrying weapons to dock. Some countries may also see carrying weapons into port as weapon smuggling.

Ironically, there is also concern that carrying weapons will make a pirate attack more dangerous. The fear is that if pirates feel threatened, they will be more likely to hurt or kill crew members.

With that in mind, here are some ways to defend against piracy:

Keeping Distance

Perhaps the easiest method of defending against piracy is to avoid it in the first place. Merchants are warned to stay hundreds of miles off the Somali coast to avoid pirates. Going too close to the coast contributed to the pirate attack of the Maersk Alabama, as depicted in the movie Captain Philips. Maersk Alabama crew have reported that they were warned to stay 600 miles from the Somali coast – while Captain Philips reported that he steered the ship to only 300 miles away (or even closer, according to crew members).

Oops I Did It Again…

Britney Spears music, of all things, has been used to deter pirates from attacking merchant ships. Somali pirates hate Western culture, and so security teams have chosen Britney Spears music as the ultimate Western icon. The music is blasted over ship speakers and has apparently been highly effective at deterring pirate attacks. Once the pirates hear the music, they steer clear of the ships.

Fire Hoses

In 2009 an Italian cruise ship was attacked by Somali pirates. One of the ways that they fought off the pirates was by using the ship’s fire hoses. Fire hoses are a useful weapon against pirates because they are non-lethal and available on most ships.

Anti-Piracy Weapons & Devices

There are also several non-lethal weapons and devices that can be used against pirate attacks. For example, an Anti-Piracy Curtain consists of a collection of hoses that are draped over the sides of the ship. The hoses spew sea water at high pressure, causing them to move in unpredictable patterns, making boarding the ship difficult and dangerous.

Escorts and Consortiums

Some merchants are resorting to hiring escort ships to protect them against pirate attacks. However, the costs of hiring an escort ship are staggering, with rates of $20,000 or more per day. For this reason, some merchants are banding together to form consortiums which would travel together, sharing the protection and cost of an escort ship.

Improved Government

The truth is, Somali piracy has come out of a country with an unstable government and two decades of civil war. The Somali government has so little control at this point, they are not in a position to take action against pirates or their partners.

Somali pirates started off as a form of militia to defend their waters against illegal fishing and dumping by other countries, who took advantage of the Somalian government’s inability to do anything. It was only later that the militia realized the potential of piracy. In an impoverished country with an unstable government, piracy makes sense. So potentially the best way to defend against piracy is to help Somalia to stabilize their government and help them to improve their economy.

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